воскресенье, 31 декабря 2017 г.

В США из-за холодов частично замерз Ниагарский водопад

Niagara Falls

Температура на востоке Соединенных Штатов опустилась до минус 12 градусов, что в Национальной метеорологической службе сочли «ужасным холодом». Из-за холодов замерз Ниагарский водопад.

Холодная погода в новогоднюю ночь прогнозируется в большей части Соединенных Штатов к востоку от Скалистых гор, сообщает Reuters со ссылкой на Национальную метеорологическую службу США. Рекордные низкие температуры ожидаются на американском Среднем Западе.

В Нью-Йорке, как ожидается, похолодает до минус 12 градусов, из-за ветра такая погода будет казаться еще холоднее.

«Ужасный холод ожидается в большей части восточных и центральных штатов. Если планируете отдых на улице, пожалуйста, наденьте несколько слоев одежды», — говорится в сообщении службы в Twitter.

Понижение температуры привело к частичному замерзанию Ниагарского водопада, находящегося в американском штате Нью-Йорк и канадском Онтарио.

«Пробирающий до костей холод умудрился частично заморозить гигантский Ниагарский водопад, превратив аттракцион в замерзший, сверкающий рай», — пишет CNN. В прошлый раз Ниагарский водопад почти полностью замерз в 2014 году.

В преддверии Нового года, 28 декабря, мэр Нью-Йорка Билл де Блазио призвал горожан не выходить на улицу из-за установившихся холодов. В тот день температура в городе опустилась до минус ​8 градусов. «Мы настоятельно рекомендуем всем горожанам на этой неделе выходить на улицу как можно реже из-за установившихся холодов. По возможности узнайте, как чувствуют себя ваши соседи и заведите домашних питомцев внутрь дома», — написал он.

четверг, 28 декабря 2017 г.

The fairy tale Wild landowner

The fairy tale "Wild landowner". Saltykov-Shchedrin. 1869 year.
The fairy tale "Wild landowner". Saltykov-Shchedrin. 1869 year.
In a certain kingdom, in a certain state, there lived a landowner, lived and looked joyful at the light. All he had was enough: the peasants, the bread, the cattle, the land, and the gardens. And that landowner was stupid, he read the newspaper "News" and the body was soft, white and friable.

Only once did this landowner pray to God:

- Lord! I'm all pleased with you, I've been awarded to everyone! Only my heart is unbearable: very much divorced in our realm of the peasant!

But God knew that the landowner was stupid, and he did not heed his request.

The landlord sees that the peasant does not wane with every passing day, but everything arrives - he sees and fears: "Well, how does he get all the goods from me?"

The landowner will look in the newspaper "News", as in this case it should be done, and will read: "Try it!"

- Only one word is written, - says the stupid landlord, - and the word is golden!

And he began to try, and not that somehow, and all by the rule. Whether the peasant's hen will wander into the master's oats - now, according to the rule, it is in the soup; whether the dower or the peasant would be cut off secretly in the master's forest - now these are the most firewood in the manor yard, and with a cutter, according to the rule, a fine.

- I'm acting fines on them now! - says the landlord to his neighbors, - because for them it is clearer.

See the peasants: although the landowner is stupid, and his mind is given a great one. He cut them down so that he had no place to stick his nose out: wherever they look, everything can not be done, but not allowed, but not yours! The cattle will come out on the watering table-the landowner screams: "My water!" The chicken will pick out for the outskirts - the landowner screams: "My land!" And the earth, and water, and air - it all became! Luchina did not become a peasant in the light of the earth, the rod did not become swept away. So the peasants prayed all the world to the Lord God:

- Lord! It's easier for us to disappear and with children with small children, than to die forever!

The gracious god heard the tearful prayer of the orphan, and there was no peasant in the whole space of the possessions of the stupid landlord. Where did the man go? No one noticed, but only people saw when a chaff whirlwind rose and, like a cloud of black, swept through the air masculine peacocks. The landowner left the balcony, pulled his nose and felt: clean, pure in all his possessions the air became. Naturally, I was satisfied. He thinks: "Now I'm going to pour my body white, the body white, loose, friable!"

And he began to live and live and began to think about how to comfort his soul.

"I'll manage, I think, the theater is at home! I'll write to the actor Sadovsky: come, they say, amiable friend! and bring the akterok with you! "

He listened to his actor Sadovsky: he himself came and an actor brought. Only he sees that in the house of the landowner is empty and put the theater and no one to raise the curtain.

- Where did you put your peasants to? - Sadovsky asks the landowner.

- But God, through my prayer, cleansed all my possessions from the peasant!

- However, brother, you stupid landowner! Who are you, stupid, wash your hands?

- Yes, I already and how many days do I wash unwashed!

- So, the mushrooms on the face grow up going? - said Sadowski, and with this word and he left, and the actor took away.

The landowner remembered that he had four generals of acquaintances nearby; thinks: "What is it I all gruppjans and yes graspasjans I spread out! I'll try to play a game with the generals five or two! "

Said - done: wrote invitations, appointed a day and sent letters to the address. The generals were real though hungry, and therefore very soon arrived. We arrived - and can not be surprised, why such a landlord has clean air.

- And that's why, - boasts the landlord, - that God, through my prayer, cleansed all my possessions from the peasant!

- Oh, how good it is! - Generals praise the landowner, - so, now you will not have this smug smell?

-Not at all,- replied the landowner.

They played a bullet, played another; The generals feel that their hour has come to drink vodka, they come in anxiety, look around.

- Must you want to have a snack, gentlemen of the generals? - The landowner asks.

- It would not be bad, master landowner!

He got up from behind the table, went to the closet and took out from there the candy and the printed gingerbread on each person.

- What is it? - The generals ask, staring at him.

- But, eat, than God sent!

- Yes, we would beef! beef would be us!

- Well, I do not have beefs for you, gentlemen generals, because since God delivered me from a peasant, and the stove in the kitchen is unheated!

The generals were angry with him, so that even their teeth chattered.

- Why, do you eat something yourself? - They snapped at him.

- I feed on some raw materials, but I still have gingerbread.

- But, brother, you are a stupid landowner! - Said the generals, and, not having finished the bullets, went home.

The landlord sees that he is being fooled another time, and he wanted to think about it, but since at that time a deck of cards came to his eyes, he waved his whole hand and began to lay out the grasp.

- Let's see, - he says,  -gentlemen of the liberals, who will prevail against whom! I'll show you what the true hardness of the soul can do!

He unfolds the "feminine whim" and thinks: "If three times comes together, then it should not be looked." And as luck would have it, how many times it will not decompose - everything comes out of it, everything goes out! There was not even a doubt in him.

- If, - she says,  -fortune itself indicates, so it is necessary to remain firm until the end. And now, as long as it's enough to lay out grandsons, I'll go and have a look!

And so he goes, he walks around the rooms, then he sits down and sits. And he's thinking. He thinks what kind of cars he will write out of England, so that all the ferry and the ferry, and the serf's spirit so that there is not at all. He thinks what fruit garden he will divorce: "Here there will be pears, plums; here it is - peaches, here - a walnut! "He will look in the window - and there everything, as he conceived, everything is exactly so it is! Breaking, according to the pike command, under the load of fruit, the pear, peach, apricot trees, and he only knows the fruits of the machines and puts them in his mouth! He thinks what kind of cows he will divorce, that no skin, no meat, and all one milk, all milk! He thinks how he will plant strawberries, all double and triple, five berries per pound, and how much he will sell this strawberry in Moscow. Finally tired of thinking, will go to the mirror to look - and there's dust on the top of the population ...

- Senka! - he suddenly calls out, forgetting himself, but then he stops and says,  - Well, let it be for the time being, it will stand like that for a while! But I will prove to these liberals what the firmness of the soul can do!

Promays in this manner, as long as it gets dark - and sleep!

And in a dream dreams are even more fun than waking, dreaming. He dreams that the governor himself has learned about this landlord's inflexibility and asked the police chief: "What kind of hard chicken is your son in the county wound up?" Then he dreams that he was made a minister for this unyieldingness, and he walks in ribbons, and writes circulars: "Be firm and not look!" Then he dreams that he walks along the banks of the Euphrates and Tigris...

- Eve, my friend! - he says.

But I've reviewed my dreams: I have to get up.

- Senka! - Again he screams, forgetting himself, but suddenly he will remember ... and his head will fall.

- What, however, do? - he asks himself, - at least some kind of hard-boiled one brought it!

And that's why his captain, the police chief, suddenly comes to this word. The stupid landowner was unspeakably delighted with him; ran to the cabinet, took out two printed gingerbread cookies and thought: "Well, this one seems to be satisfied!"

- Tell me, please, Mr. landowner, how miraculously did all your temporarily liable people disappear? The police chief asked.

- And so, and so, God, according to my prayer, completely cleared all my possessions from the peasant!

- So, with; but is it not known to you, Mr. Landowner, who will pay taxes for them?

- Pay? .. It's them! it's them! it is their sacred duty and duty!

- So, with; but in what way can you send them from them if they, through your prayer, are scattered across the face of the earth?

- I do not know ... I, for my part, do not agree to pay!

- And do you know, Mr. Landowner, that the treasury without taxes and duties, and even more so without wine and salt regalia, can not exist?

- Well ... I'm ready! a glass of vodka ... I'll pay!

- But do you know that, by your grace, we can not buy a piece of meat in the market, or a pound of bread? do you know what it smells like?

- Have mercy! I, on my part, are ready to sacrifice! Here are two gingerbread cookies!

- You are stupid, master landowner! - said the police chief, turned and left without even looking at the printed gingerbread.

This time the landowner pondered for a while. Now the third person is celebrating his fool, the third person will look, look at him, spit and depart. Is he really a fool? Is it really the inflexibility that he so cherished in his soul, in translation into ordinary language only means stupidity and insanity? and really, due to one of his inflexibility, the taxes and regalia stopped, and there was no way to get a pound of flour or a piece of meat in the market?

And how he was a stupid landowner, at first he even snorted with pleasure at the thought of what he had played, but then he remembered the words of the police chief: "Do you know what this smells like?" - and he was afraid of it.
He began, as usual, to go back and forth through the rooms and still thinks: "What does it smell like?" Does not it smell of watering what? for example, Cheboksary? or, perhaps, Varnavin? "

- If only I could go to Cheboksary!" at least, the world would be convinced, what the firmness of the soul means! - Says the landlord, and he himself, in secret, thinks from himself: "In Cheboksary, I, perhaps, would have seen my dear man!"

The landlord seems to be, and will sit, and again resembles. Whatever comes up, everything seems to be saying: "But you are stupid, mister landowner!" He sees running through the room and the mousy sneaks to the cards, which he made grandshipans and has already fattened enough to excite a mouse appetite.

- Ksh... - he rushed to the mouse.

But the mouse was intelligent and understood that the landowner without Senka could do no harm to him. He only wagged his tail in reply to the terrible exclamation of the landowner and in a moment looked at him from under the sofa, as if to say: "Wait, you stupid landlord!" it's only the beginning! I'm not only cards, but I'll take your bathrobe, as well as you'll pamper it properly! "

How much, if not much time has passed, only sees the landowner, that in the garden his paths are burdocked, in the bushes of the snake and reptiles all the kittens are swarming, and in the park wild beasts howl. One day a bear approached the estate, squatted, looked through the windows at the landowner and licked.

- Senka! - Cried the landlord, but suddenly he realized ... and cried.

However, the firmness of the soul still did not leave him. Several times he was weak, but as soon as he felt that his heart was beginning to dissolve, he would now rush to the newspaper "News" and in one minute become bitter again.

- No, it's better to be wild at all, I'd rather wander through the woods with wild animals, but no one will say that the Russian nobleman, Prince Urus-Kuchum-Kildibayev, has departed from the principles!

And now he is wild. Even at this time, it was already autumn, and the frosts were decent, but he did not feel even the cold. All he, from head to foot, grew hair like an ancient Esau, and his nails turned like iron. He had long ceased to blush, he walked more and more on all fours and even wondered how he had not previously noticed that this way of walking is the most decent and most convenient. I lost even the ability to pronounce articulate sounds and learned to myself some special victorious click, the middle between whistling, hissing and barking. But the tail has not yet acquired.

He will go to his park, in which he once unwashed his body friable, white, friable, like a cat, in an instant, climbs up to the very top of the tree and watches from there. It will come running, it, the hare, will rise on hind legs and listen, whether there is no danger where - and he really here as here. Like an arrow jumping off a tree, clinging to its prey, tearing it with nails, and so with all the insides, even with the skin, and eat it.

And he became strong terribly, so strong that he even felt himself entitled to enter into friendly relations with that bear who once looked at him through the window.

- Do you want to, Mikhailo Ivanovich, hike together with the hares? - He said to the bear.

- Want - why not want to! - answered the bear, - only, my brother, you vainly destroyed this man!

- And why?

- And because the peasant of this is not more capable of an example than your brother's nobleman. And therefore I'll tell you straight: you are a stupid landowner, even though I am a friend!

Meanwhile, the captain-police officer, although patronizing the landowners, but in view of the fact that the peasant has disappeared from the face of the earth, did not dare to keep silent. Worried his report and the provincial authorities, wrote to him: "And who do you think, who will pay taxes now? who will drink wine on taverns? who will be engaged in innocent activities? "The captain-police officer answers: the treasury-de should now be abolished, and the innocent classes were abolished by themselves, instead of them, looting, robbery and murder were spread in the county. A few days ago, and his, the police chief, some bear is not a bear, a man has not nearly lifted a man in a man-bear, and he suspects that stupid landlord who is the instigator of all troubles.

The chiefs were worried and they collected the council. They decided to seize and install the peasant, but to the stupid landowner, who instigated the instigator all the time, to inspire him in the least so that he ceased his fanfaronhood and did not repair entry to the treasury of taxes.

As if on purpose, at that time, a swarm of peasants flew through the provincial town and showered the entire market square. Now this grace was drawn, put in a whip and sent to the district.

And suddenly again there was a smell in that county chaff and sheepskins; but at the same time flour and meat and livestock appeared on the market, and taxes were received in one day so that the treasurer, seeing such a heap of money, only threw up his hands in surprise and cried out:

- And where are you taking the rascals from!

"What has become of the landowner, however?" The readers will ask me. To this I can say that although with great difficulty, he was also caught. Caught, immediately blew out, washed and cut off their nails. Then the captain of the police corrected him properly, took the newspaper "News" and, having entrusted his supervision to Senka, left.

He is alive to this day. Lay out gruppjans, yearn for his former life in the woods, wash himself only under compulsion and sometimes mooch.

среда, 27 декабря 2017 г.

How Robinson was created

How Robinson was created. A humorous story. 1932 year. Ilya Ilf, Yevgeny Petrov
How Robinson was created. A humorous story. 1932 year. Ilya Ilf, Yevgeny Petrov
In the edition of the illustrated two-story "Adventure" there was a shortage of works of art that could attract the attention of the youth reader.

There were some works, but it's not that. There was too much slavery in them. To tell the truth, they overshadowed the soul of the youth reader, did not rivet. And the editor wanted to chink.

In the end, decided to order a novel with a sequel.

The editorial runner rushed off with a summons to the writer Moldavantsev, and the next day Moldovantsev sat on the merchant's sofa in the editor's office.

- You understand, - the editor explained, - it must be entertaining, fresh, full of interesting adventures. In general, it should be the Soviet Robinson Crusoe. So that the reader could not tear himself away.

- Robinson - it's possible, - the writer said briefly.

- Not easy Robinson, but the Soviet Robinson.

- What else! Not Romanian!

The writer was uncommunicative. It was immediately evident that this was a man of business.

And indeed, the novel was ripe to the agreed date. Moldovantsev did not deviate too much from the great original. Robinson is so Robinson.

The Soviet youth is shipwrecked. The wave carries him to an uninhabited island. He is alone, defenseless, in the face of mighty nature. He is surrounded by dangers: animals, lianas, the coming rainy period. But the Soviet Robinson, full of energy, overcomes all obstacles that seemed insurmountable. And three years later the Soviet expedition finds it, finds it in its prime. He defeated nature, built a house, surrounded him with a green ring of vegetable gardens, bred rabbits, sewed a sweatshirt from monkey's tails and taught the parrot to wake itself up in the morning with the words: "Attention! Drop the blanket, drop the blanket! We begin morning gymnastics!"

- Very good - the editor said, - But it's just great about rabbits. Quite timely. But, you know, I do not quite understand the main idea of the work.

- The struggle of man with nature, - Moldaviantsev said with usual brevity.

- Yes, but there is nothing Soviet.

- And the parrot? After all, he replaces my radio. Experienced transmitter.

- A parrot is good. And the ring of vegetable gardens is good. But the Soviet public does not feel it. Where, for example, a place? The leadership role of the trade union?

Moldovantsev suddenly became agitated. As soon as he felt that the novel could not be taken, his taciturnity disappeared. He became eloquent.

- Where is the local? Is not the island uninhabited?

- Yes, absolutely true, uninhabited. But the place must be. I'm not an artist of the word, but in your place I would introduce. As a Soviet element.

- But the whole plot is built on the fact that the island is uninhabited ...

Then Moldavantsev accidentally looked into the editor's eyes and hesitated. The eyes were so spring, so there was a March emptiness and blueness, that he decided to compromise.

- But you are right, - he said, raising his finger. - Of course. How could I not have realized that right away? Two people are rescued from the shipwreck: our Robinson and the chairman of the local committee.

- And two more released members, - the editor said coldly.

- Oh! - squealed the Moldavantsev.

- Nothing's ow. Two released, well, and one activist, collector of membership fees.

- Why else is the picker? Who will she collect membership dues from?

- At Robinson's.

- Robinson can be paid by the chairman. Nothing will come of it.

- Here you are mistaken, Comrade Moldavantsev. This is absolutely unacceptable. The chairman of the local committee should not be exchanged for trifles and run to collect contributions. We are struggling with this. He must engage in serious leadership work.

- Then you can and picker, - obeyed Moldavantsev. - It's even good. She will marry the chairman or the same Robinson. All the same it will be more fun to read.

- It's not worth it. Do not slide into the boulevard, into an unhealthy eroticism. Let her collect her membership dues and store them in a fireproof cupboard.

Moldovantsev fidgeted on the couch.

- Allow, the fireproof cupboard can not be on a desert island!

The editor became thoughtful.

- Wait, stand, - he said, - you have a wonderful place there in the first chapter. Together with Robinson and members of the local committee, the wave throws different things ashore ...

- An ax, a carbine, a busol, a barrel of rum and a bottle with an antiscorbutic agent, - the writer solemnly enumerated.

- Rum out, - the editor said quickly, - and then, what kind of bottle is there with an antiscorbutic agent? Who needs it? Better a bottle of ink! And necessarily a fireproof cupboard.

- This cupboard is given to you! Membership fees can be perfectly stored in the hollow of a baobab. Who will steal them there?

- Like who? And Robinson? And the chairman of the local committee? And the released members? And the shop commission?

- Did she escape, too? - The Moldovantsev asked cowardly.

- She was saved

There was a silence.

- Maybe there was a wave of a meeting table too! - The author asked sarcastically.

-Cer-tain-ly ! It is necessary to create conditions for people to work. Well, there is a carafe with water, a bell, a tablecloth. Table cloth let the wave throw whatever. Can be red, can be green. I do not interfere with artistic creation. But, darling, what you need to do first is to show the masses. Wide layers of working people.

- The wave can not throw out the masses , - Moldavantsev said obstinately. - It goes against the plot. Think! A wave suddenly throws a few tens of thousands of people ashore! After all, this is a chicken for a laugh.

- By the way, a small amount of healthy, cheerful, cheerful laughter, - the editor put in, - will never interfere.

- No! A wave of this can not do.

- Why the wave? - suddenly the editor was surprised.

- How else would the mass get to the island? Is not the island uninhabited?!

- Who told you that he was uninhabited? You're confusing me. All clear. There is an island, better even a peninsula. So it's calmer. And there is a series of entertaining, fresh, interesting adventures. There is a professional work, sometimes not enough. The activist reveals a number of problems, well, at least in the field of collecting membership fees. It is assisted by wide layers. And the repentant chairman. In the end, you can give a general meeting. This will be very effective in artistic terms. Well, that's all.

- And Robinson? - The Moldavantsev muttered.

- Yes. It's good that you reminded me. Robinson embarrasses me. Throw it out altogether. An absurd, unjustified figure of a whiner.

- Now everything is clear, - said Moldavantsev in a grave voice, - tomorrow will be ready.

- Well, everything. Do it. By the way, you have a shipwreck at the beginning of the novel. You know, do not shipwreck. Let it be without a shipwreck. So it will be more interesting. Correctly? Well and good. Be healthy!

Left alone, the editor laughed joyfully.

- At last, - he said, - I will have a real adventure and, moreover, quite a work of art.

суббота, 9 декабря 2017 г.

Антарктида становится зеленой

Континент начал активно покрываться мхами. Изменения вызваны повышением температуры, спровоцированным глобальным потеплением.

За последние 50 лет количество растений в Антарктиде увеличилось из-за климатических изменений. К таким выводам пришли исследователи. В будущем экосистема региона может значительно измениться в условиях глобального потепления.

Так, ученые исследовали мох с территории около 640 км и нашли в нем биологические изменения, которые произошли за последние полвека. Перемены обусловлены именно повышением температуры, считают ученые.

«Если это будет продолжаться, и все большее количество земли освободится ото льда, Антарктический полуостров будет намного зеленее в будущем», — заявили исследователи.

Отметим, ученые начали документировать изменения климата в Антарктиде еще с 1950-х годов, но биологические записи мха могут предоставить более долгосрочные данные по климатическим изменениям.

«Склонность мха к росту из-за повышения температуры свидетельствует о том, что экосистемы быстро изменятся в условиях предстоящего потепления, что приведет к серьезным изменениям в биологии и ландшафте региона», — рассказал ученый Дэн Чермен.

Теперь исследователи планируют изучить основные записи, сделанные еще 1000 лет назад, чтобы проверить, насколько смена климата повлияла на изменение в экосистеме континента до того, как человеческая деятельность вызвала глобальное потепление.

23 Май, 2017 года